History of the Abacus

The abacus has a very long history. It spans over thousands of years. The earliest abacus was invented about 5000 years ago. Some expert historians believe that the abacus was invented by the ancient Chinese. Still others are of the opinion that the abacus was invented by the Babylonians or by the Egyptians. However, all these claims are backed by historical evidence like archaeological excavations and ancient texts. It may be possible that many civilizations may have invented the abacus independently and roughly at the same time.

The first counting device was the human hand and the fingers. The reason why we use the decimal system is that there are 10 fingers (both hands combined) and so it is very easy to count if 10 is the base. Later on man started using natural objects and markings to count and calculate. Larger quantities [exceeding 10] could not be easily count on the fingers. So various natural objects like pebbles and twigs were used.

Merchants needed not only needed a way to count the goods that they bought and sold, they also needed a method to perform calculations. This was achieved with the help of counting boards. Until the advent of a proper number system, counting boards were very popular. The abacus has its origin in one such counting board.

Time line of the history of the abacus:

  • 3000 BC: An early form of abacus originates in the Orient
  • 1000 BC: Chinese start using counting boards
  • 500 BC: Romans and Greeks use counting boards
  • 300 BC: Abacus is widely used as a counting device in China
  • 500 AD: The abacus is used in Europe
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Common Legal Penaltyies For Computer Crimes

Computer technology is becoming increasingly more advanced and there is a lot of money to be made surrounding it. Where there is more money to be made, there is more criminal activity, punishable by law. The Information Act of 2000 states that there should be different penalties for different types of technological crimes. The following are common legal penalies for computer crimes.

Telecommunication service theft involves the unlawful obsolete of any telecommunications technology. This crime is punishable with a heavy fine and an undefined term of imprimination. The legal consequences vary depending on the severity of the theft. Communications intercept crime is a Class-D crime that involves the interruption of communication technology. It is punishable by one to five years in prison along with a fine and can include other infractions such as offensive material dissemination, telecommunications piracy, and other cyber frauds.

When someone changes a source code on a computer program or website, this is called computer source tampering. Those found guilty of this crime can face up to three years in prison, or a fine. Computer hacking also carries a prison sentence of up to three years.

Although all technological crimes are taken seriously, government computer systems hold the most serious consequence when violated. Trying to obtain access to a system protected by the government is a very serious crime that can have major consequences on government operations. Anyone found guilty of tampering with a government computer faces ten years in prison and a major fine.

Protecting computer technology crimes is extremely important because the world now relates heavily on the use of computer systems to operate. With one of the most common legal penalties for computer crimes being a prison sentence, the legal system has been very effective in putting new laws in place with the changing technology. Technology crimes are taken very seriously and punished harshly.

How To Buy Good Summer Clothes Fast

Summer is the fun packed season of the year full of adventure and would not be complete without a few additions to the wardrobe. You can get new summer clothes fast by knowing how and where to shop. Many people make shopping mistakes during summer as they are too quick to buy fancy clothes.

Buy full outfits not single items

A mistake many shoppers make during summer is getting anything they like that looks colorful. The problem is one ends up with many items; most which do not match since you can not get many full outfits. When buying any item, whether online or not, make sure you can visualize what it would go with. There is little use in buying a great skirt or top but not wearing it in the season because it matches nothing in your wardrobe. It is prudent to buy an outfit as opposed to single items.

Go for quality clothes

It is important to keep emotions in check when buying items to enable you to pay attention to details that show the quality of an item. Avoid buying items that look nice but are of poor quality and will not last a few weeks. Get firm and quality items that will last you till the next summer.

Buy wardrobe staples

Avoid such basic mistakes by making a list of items that you really need. Whether you are going for a vacation or not, there are items you can not do without such a flowery sundress or wide-brimmed hat. Once you have a list, it will be easier to separate closet staples from mere wants. This helps you to shop faster and save money.

Get rid of old clothes

Once you have a list, get fishing in your closet for items that you have not worn in over a year. If you are going to buy more clothes, then get rid of the old ones. Categorize the clothes into those to give away to charity and items you can swap.

Find clothes online

Search online for swapping stores where you can barter your gently worn or even not worn items for others. This way you get new outfits without spending any money. Make sure you display items that you would buy if they were sold to you at the online swap shop you find. The clothes should be in good condition to get you a good swap.

Shopping Online for Restaurant Furniture

Shopping for restaurant furniture does not have to be difficult, annoying or tedious, unless of course you want it to be! If you want excuses for not upgrading, remodeling, or opening your own business, you will not want to shop online to find everything you could ever need.

Whether people are willing to admit it or not, the World Wide Web has made the world a much smaller place, especially when it comes to shopping. The once dreaded tasks of flipping through catalogs, making countless phone calls and driving across town (and even across the state) in search of a specific item has been conveniently replaced with a click of the mouse, a computer screen and an Internet connection. Not only does this save time and fuel, it saves you and your business money!

There are, however, a few things you will want to consider before you purchase anything, including restaurant furniture, online. First and foremost, you'll want a secure site that enables you to put in your payment information (credit card numbers, etc.) without the worry of unauthorized individuals being able to access this personal information. The easiest way to check for site security is to look for the secure logo, like Verisign or Geotrust. Your personal payment information is safe with them!

The second item on our list is variety. You'll want to have choices to make your establishment truly your own, reflecting you, your personality and your ideas along the way. Retro, contemporary, art deco, or classic- you'll want to pick your style and work from there, always being open to new ideas and possible adjustments, prioritizing as you go in order to accommodate your primary needs. The ideal furniture provider will have an optimum selection to allow you to create your establishment's environment the way you want it to be.

Do not forget about shipping! Reasonable shipping rates and online tools to help you to calculate shipping costs, plus the all-important time frame for which you will receive your newly purchased items, will take the guesswork out of the shopping experience. This will enable you to keep your budget intact (and your sanity, too!)

The most important aspect of any business, whether you're in the business of serving food or selling the seats for the customers to sit on, is customer service. You'll definitely agree that you want to receive both the excellent service that many small companies are known for, but the wide selection of products which a larger company can obviously provide. There are a few online stores that offer the best of both worlds, so shop around!